GENERAL FOOD AND EXERCISE INFORMATION

GENERAL FOOD INFORMATION, ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW

PROTEIN / AMINO COMPLEXES

Proteins play a number of very important roles in the body, these include the repair of body cells, reparation and building of collagen tissue (muscle, bone, etc.), energy provision and regulation of many important metabolic processes.

The human body contains approximately 65% water and 25% protein.
Protein is a nutrient made up of chains of usually hundreds of amino acids. The enzyme Pepsin digests the proteins in the stomach. This enzyme splits the proteins into smaller particles, namely polypeptides. These polypeptides are split into even smaller particles, the free amino acids. The amino acids are then taken up by the intestinal wall and delivered into the bloodstream. Through the bloodstream all amino acids are transported to the liver and if necessary transformed. After this each amino acid gets its own destination.

There are twenty-four different amino acids, eight of these are essential amino acids, from these eight the remaining non-essential amino acids can be made. All essential amino acids must be obtained through the daily diet. The body can’t function without these essential amino acids. The balance of the amino acids in the protein of any food determines its quality or usability.

Well-controlled research studies have been done to determine the exact amount of protein needed in athletes and weightlifters to lead to what is called nitrogen balance. Nitrogen balance occurs when the amount of protein that goes into the body (food, supplements) is equal to the protein that leaves the body (sweat, urine, faeces etc.). The results of these studies have demonstrated that endurance and strength athletes often require more than double the amount of protein of the average sedentary person. These research reports are available at our head quarters.
This means that endurance athletes need about 1.2-1.4 g/kg protein a day and strength athletes 1.7-2.0 g/kg a day to achieve nitrogen balance rather than the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) of only 0.8 g/kg. . Recommended Daily allowances (RDA’s) were instituted over forty years ago, unfortunately the amounts recommended only give us the bare minimum requirements to prevent deficiency. Preventing a deficiency will not lead to the best performance possible, what we really want is optimal performance and/or muscle mass.

Whey protein is a high quality and nutritious dairy protein. Milk contains two primary proteins: casein and whey. In the production of cheese the liquid whey separates from the casein. The whey proteins are then separated from the liquid whey and purified to obtain a highly concentrated protein.

Whey protein is the highest quality complete protein available, it contains all of the essential amino acids required by the body each and every day. Our Whey protein hydrolysate has the highest biological value of 156. The biological value is a measure of protein quality. It indicates the amount of protein that is retained from the absorbed protein for maintenance and growth.
The reference for biological value is egg protein which has a score of 100.
Unlike meat, vegetable and egg protein, whey protein also contains the same major component found in mother’s milk, alpha-lactabumine.

Protein-depleted individuals have impaired immuno-competence. Part of this impairment can be ascribed to limited availability of amino acids for synthesis of cellular proteins of the immune system and to support the hepatic acute phase protein response. Amino acids are also involved in other aspects of the defence mechanism
Whey proteins help to maintain adequate levels of glutathione (GSH). GSH is a water-soluble anti-oxidant (synthesised from glutamate (glutamine), glycine, and cysteine) that is needed for a healthy immune system. Intensive exercise, stress and pollution deplete GSH levels leaving the body venerable to disease. Numerous studies are now exploring other areas where the use of whey protein may be beneficial. Additional studies are needed but promising areas include: cancer treatment, HIV, stress reduction, hypertension and appetite suppression

Whey Protein Isolate induces a dramatic increase of plasma amino acids this is perfect for the build up of muscle tissue (anabolism) but this increase is short-lived. To prevent muscle protein breakdown (catabolism) we need slow release proteins . That’s why we added Magnesium Caseinate and egg white protein to W Force.

Caseinate creates a prolonged release of amino acids to the body. Caseinates clot in the stomach which delays its gastric emptying. Nowadays much of our daily foods is enhanced with calcium. For the right calcium-magnesium balance it is necessary to obtain enough magnesium through our daily diet. That’s why W Force is the first and only combined protein supplement that uses Magnesium Caseinate. Magnesium also offers several more advantages for the athlete for example it has a crucial role in the production of ATP, muscle contraction and relaxation.

Egg white has the advantages of a high biological value and a slow release of amino acids. The balance of the amino acids is very similar to that found in the human body. That is why this protein combined with the two milk proteins offers a superior balance in all amino acids.

Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the body, particularly in the muscles. Glutamine is critical to the athlete because it precedes the synthesis of other amino acids and nucleotides. Next to being one of the most powerful anabolic and anti catabolic nutrients available it also helps to boost the immune system. It appears to play a specific role in maintaining function of rapidly proliferating cells such as lymphocytes and mucosal enterocytes. It is noteworthy that under conditions of infection and trauma muscle concentrations of glutamine fall.
Intensive training over extended periods will deplete muscle and blood glutamine levels. If glutamine stores are not replenished, glutamine is pulled from the muscles themselves. The body will end up in a catabolic stage with depressed protein synthesis and will start to loose muscle mass.

Branch-chained amino acids (BCAA) are 3 essential amino acids namely Isoleucine, Leucine and Valine. BCAA have been proven in studies to help increase strength, boost performance and promote lean body mass while selectively reduce body fat. BCAA can exert anabolic effects by facilitating the release of anabolic hormones such as insulin, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factors (IGF). BCAA also prevent protein breakdown. Studies have shown that BCAA can exert anti-catabolic effects and preserve lean body mass. Unlike other amino acids BCAA can also be oxidised as fuel during prolonged exercise. During such exercise they help to maintain blood sugar levels through the alanine-glucose cycle.

Carbohydrates are the main suppliers of body energy. They also add volume to a meal filling the stomach and giving you a sated feeling. Subsequently during the digestive processes the most important kinds of carbohydrates – better known as starch and sugar – are broken down to form glucose or blood sugar. From blood sugar the important energy required by the nerves and brain is produced. To prevent (muscle tissue building) proteins in your food from being used as energy supply, you add carbohydrates to your diet. Carbohydrates are just as important for your health as fats and proteins. It is recommended to make sure that reasonable percentage of your daily food-intake consists of carbohydrates. Preferably complex carbohydrates. Complex carbohydrates are found in: * pasta * vegetables, dried subtropical fruit * legumes (brown and white beans, marrow-fat peas and common peas) * rye bread, wholemeal and brown bread * wholemeal products such as oatmeal, muesli, wild rice, maize, whole-wheat macaroni * nuts, peanuts and linseed. Simple carbohydrates are found in: * sugar, sweets * confectionery * biscuits, crackers and toast

It is important to know more about fats. Contrary to what most people think, fats are a very important part of food and are essential for numerous body processes. The most important function of fat is the production of energy and as carrier. Vitamins A, D, E and K can only be dissolved in fat. Fat may be of animal or vegetable origin. It is important to make distinction between ‘good’ and ‘bad’ fats. Saturated fats are the “bad” kind. Your body uses them for the production of energy. If you eat too much of these every day, it causes the increase of cholesterol levels, vascular constriction and of course an increase fat . Unsaturated fats are chemically processed or of plant origin. Examples are: sunflower oil, olive oil and (ground)nuts. Fatty acids (among those the so called tri-glycerids) are used by the body to form cell-membranes, to support the central nervous system, to produce a number of important hormones and for many other essential body processes like the production of energy. Fatty acids are often used for long distance performance. Fish is a great source of Omega 3 & 6 oils. Fish oil has proved to be a healthy source for energy and anti-oxidation, recuperation and health protection. Other good sources of fats are nuts (especially wall nuts, chess nuts) etc. Unsalted nuts are better than salted ones. For the benefit of your digestive system it is good to add some olive oil to the daily food (such as salads). Tuna is a good lunch part of a sandwich (take the water filed). When young (<30 years of age) fats in butter are all right to use sometimes, over 35 years of age margarine is preferred. When taking dairy products of any kind be aware of the fat levels. Dairy products are often a source of great inconvenience for many people due to lactose intolerance, therefore it is strongly advised NOT to take your daily supplements with milk but with fruit juice. If you do have a body that easily creates fat please do avoid the eating of larger amounts of primary sugars, these turn into fat quite easily.

CREATINE

In the last decade creatine has taken the supplement market as a storm. Now it is available in pills, powder, capsules and even in a liquid (unstable) formulation.
Without a doubt it is one of the most thoroughly researched supplements in the world.
Creatine is synthesised from the amino acids glycine, arginine, and methionine, and produced by the liver, pancreas and kidneys. About 95% of creatine is concentrated in skeletal muscle and a small amount in the brain.

Creatine is crucial for energy flow within skeletal muscle.
The only substance that can deliver energy for muscular contraction is ATP (adenosine triphosphate). By releasing a phosphate group (changing ATP in ADP) energy is released.The ATP pool is very limited and has to be refilled in short notice, as the next action is probably less than a few seconds away. There are 3 different systems for the body to rebuild ATP. The aerobic-, the anaerobic lactic-, and the anaerobic alactic system. The most efficient way is the anaerobic alactic system. In this system phosphocreatine (PCr), the body’s usable form of creatine, is broken down and donates a phosphate group to ADP thus forming ATP.
The anaerobic alactic system supplies the body with energy for short intensive actions but has a low capacity. If we increase the capacity, by for instance the addition of creatine, we can improve performance.
By supplementing creatine the PCr pool can be increased. Next to being produced in the body creatine is also present in small amounts in fish and meat. Trying to increase the PCr pool by eating fish and meat is a problem. Because of the very small amounts present in fish and meat you would have to eat kilo’s to only get a few milligrams of creatine. This is a very insufficient method. A better solution is to isolate the creatine so it can be taken in a pure form.

Numerous studies have proven the benefits of supplementing with creatine monohydrate. Research indicate that supplementing creatine can elevate PCr levels in the muscles, increase cell volume, increases cell hydration, create a buffer against lactate building, increase performance during repeated bouts of resistance exercises, increase lean body mass and strength.

Creatine was originally intended to shift the border of fatigue in sprint events like the 100 m dash in athletics and short distances in swimming and cycling.
But pure sprinting is not the only area where the use of creatine can be beneficial. The PCr pool also plays an important role when short explosive actions are alternated with short rest periods (interval). Many sports are characterised by interval, for example: soccer, tennis, hockey, volleyball etc. Supplementing creatine can help to shorten the recovery period by increasing the PCr pool and decreasing the time needed to form back PCr.

Strength training has the same character as the before mentioned interval sports. A larger PCr pool and a faster formation of PCr make it possible to increase training volume and train at a higher intensity. By being able to train longer and harder a higher level of strength and lean body mass can be obtained.

The break down of PCr also contributes to buffer the lactate building seen in activities that rely on the anaerobic lactic system. Research has shown that using creatine increases performances at a high intensity over periods between 30 seconds-2 minutes.
If this performance increase can only be contributed to increased lactate buffer-capacity cannot be definitely concluded yet. It might well be the case that the increased PCr energy level by itself is responsible for the positive effects.

A further benefit of supplementing with creatine is that it will enhance muscle cell volume and hydration.
Studies indicate that cellular hydration is necessary for promoting muscle growth and development. It is easy to understand that a larger cell volume will mean more space for the take up of beneficial nutrients

The level of creatine that can be contained by muscle tissue is limited to a maximum. When supplementing creatine, the increase in the level of PCr will be higher in persons who have a low natural level compared to persons with high natural levels. Vegetarians for example will have a very high increase in PCr when they start to take creatine.
Taking more creatine than the muscle tissue can contain will be of no extra benefit and a waist of money. The creatine-loading phase used in most studies is 20 g for 5 days divided over 4 serving of 5 g.
The recommended maintenance dose of creatine is no more than 5 g a day (one teaspoon).

It makes sense to cycle the use of creatine. Although not confirmed by research it might be possible that the specialised cells in the liver, pancreas and kidney which normally produce creatine will get lazy when using creatine to long. Therefore it is advised to use CREA FORCE for no longer than 6 – 8 weeks followed by at least 1 month no use.

It is very important that the quality of the creatine you are using is of the highest level. All reliable research has been done with pharmaceutical quality creatine monohydrate like that of Force One. After the successful introduction of creatine on the world market by US companies the industry jumped on this “magical” supplement. Many companies, especially in the USA came up with fancy combinations that are supposed to work better (according to their own unproved commercial talks) and are much cheaper. Finally production and quality didn’t keep space with each other. Creatine was produced all over the world, even under non-controlled situations and sometimes in back yard factories. In our own conducted research we found numerous trademarks using cheap creatine with small to dangerous amounts of pollution. We even found cadmium! These products can produce side effects like headaches, fever, muscle cramps, nausea etc.
Don’t be fooled nothing works better than high pharmaceutical quality creatine monohydrate.

Our pure creatine monohydrate is only of European origin because we want to make sure our creatine doesn’t contain contaminants such as creatinine, dicyandiamide and dihydrotriazine unlike many other creatine products.

Ultimately the use of this product combined with a well-balanced diet, sufficiently heavy training and the individuals natural ability will determine the increase in lean body mass.

No sugar, salt, starch, artificial colouring, flavouring, or preservatives added. All components in this product are derived from natural sources.

MagicZinc

Zinc is among the most important of the trace elements in human nutrition. Zinc is incorporated into an impressive list of biological systems. This is assisted by the relative safety of this element, especially its lack of oxidant properties (in contrast to iron and copper), that facilitates its transport within the body and its metabolism in individual cells as
well as its biological utilisation.

An immense amount of research on the role of zinc in the human body, has been taking place over the last ten years.

We know now that zinc has essential roles in many aspects of metabolism. The human body on average contains no more than 3 grams of zinc, but this amount ensures the proper functioning of more than 300 enzymes.
Zinc also has many structural roles in biological membranes and cell receptors (for example, for hormones including testosterone).
Because of zinc’s vital roles in cell division, growth, differentiation, and for several other reasons, zinc is especially important at times of the human life cycle, for example early childhood, puberty and during the reproductive cycle.
Zinc is also needed by tissues that turnover rapidly such as the immune system and bone marrow. A zinc deficiency will disturb the immune system and leave a person susceptible to infections, diarrhoea and parasitic infections.
Zinc status affects basic processes of cell division, growth and differentiation.

It is estimated that a staggering 48% of the world’s population is at risk from zinc deficiency.
The common causes of zinc deficiency are low dietary intake and low bioavailability.
Minerals are extracted in the first place from the soil by plants. They may be obtained directly from eating these plants or from eating the meat of the animals that ate the plants. They are frequently deficient in our modern diets. The primary reasons are: declining mineral levels in natural foods, essential minerals are refined out of food and our mineral needs are increasing.
Natural sources of zinc are milk, cheese, oysters and red meat. But eating a lot of these nutrients is usually accompanied with a high intake of saturated fats. (something the health conscious person and athlete definitely wants to avoid!).
People who eat sparingly to obtain or maintain a low body weight and an athletic physique are especially at risk of not getting enough zinc.

Zinc being an anti-oxidant is the protector of our body’s resistance system. It supports the effective absorption of all amino acids in a natural way.

The supplementation of MagicZinc can lead to an increase in the resistance- and recuperative power. Especially people with acne and/or eczema (young adults or woman in their cycle period) may benefit from a daily intake of MagicZinc

TOTAL VITAMIN & MINERAL COMPLEX

Vitamins are organic nutrients that are essential for life. Vitamins regulate the metabolism and all biochemical processes in our body. Vitamins turn on enzymes, which in turn make all body processes happen. Vitamins are needed to balance hormones, produce energy, boost the immune system, protect the arteries, make skin healthy etc.

Vitamins are considered micro-nutrients because the body needs them in relatively small amounts compared to macro-nutrients like carbohydrates, protein, fats and water. Vitamins can be divided in water-soluble and oil/fat soluble. Water-soluble vitamins must be taken into the body daily, as they can’t be stored and are excreted within one to four days. These include vitamin C, and the B complex vitamins. The fat-soluble vitamins can be stored to some degree for a longer period of time in the body’s fatty tissues and the liver. These include Vitamin A, D, E, H, K and P

Vitamin A
– Essential for reproduction and maintenance of epithelial tissue inside and out
– Essential for night vision
– Enhances immune system
– Improves blood
– Improves and regulates cell division en growth.

Beta-carotene
– Most active precursor of vitamin A, and in high doses, unlike vitamin A, is not toxic
– Important antioxidant in fat tissue

Vitamin B1 (thiamine)
– Essential for all important biochemical processes
– Important for proper functioning of nervous system, heart, blood cells and muscles.

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
– Turns in conjunction with enzymes fats, sugars and protein into energy
– Important for healthy skin, hear and nails
– Stimulates athletic performance
– Important as co-enzyme factor for the antioxidant system. (production of glutathione)

Vitamin B3 (niacin)
– Helps cholesterol metabolism
– Produces energy from carbohydrates, fats and proteins
– Lowers blood pressure
– Improves blood circulation
– Maintains nervous system
– Keeps the gastrointestinal tract healthy
– Important for the production of several hormones

Vitamin B5 (Panthothenic Acid)
– Essential for function of andrenal glands
– Involved in energy production
– Controls fat metabolism
– Enhances memory and mental performance
– Maintains healthy skin and hair
– Decreases stress
– Prevents tiredness

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
– Essential for protein digestion and utilisation
– Involved in many turnover processes (for example from amino acids in hormones)
– Important for immune system
– Important for metabolism of unsaturated lipids
– Natural anti-depressant
– Natural diuretic
– Helps control allergic reactions
– Involved in cell division
– Involved in production of red blood cells

Folic Acid (regarded as either B9 or B10)
– Critical during pregnancy for development of brain and nerves
– Always essential for brain an nerve function
– Needed for utilization of protein
– Needed for red blood cell formation
– Critical for transfer of genetic codes
– Improves appetite
– Improves lactation
– Stimulates function of stomach acid
– Helps liver function
– Important for immune system

Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin)
– Crucial for a healthy metabolism of nerves
– Improves protein metabolism
– Supports production of hemoglobin
– Promotes synthesis of DNA
– Necessary for cell division
– Improves quantity and quality of sperm
– Protects against allergies and toxins (like tobacco smoke)

Biotin (vitamin H- officially not a true vitamin)
– Works in conjunction with B vitamins
– Helps the body to use essential fats and proteins
– Assist in promoting healthy skin, hair and nerves

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
– Most important antioxidant in water tissue
– Very important for immune system
– Essential for collagen production
– Keeps bones, skin and joints healthy
– Increases wound healing
– Essential for energy production
– Essential for production of adrenaline and other hormones
– Important for storage and transport of Iron
– Involved in calcium metabolism
– Lowers cholesterol level
– Protects against cancer and heart diseases

Vitamin D (ergocalciferol, cholecalciferol)
– Protects against osteoporosis.
– Has a regulating function on heart rhythm
– Helps maintain strong and healthy bones by retaining calcium.
– Strengthens immune system

Vitamin E (d-alpha tocopherol)
– Most important antioxidant in fat tissue
– Improves circulation
– Prevents thrombosis
– Prevents arteriosclerosis
– Improves wound healing
– Improves fertility

Vitamin K
– Controls blood clotting
– Important for proper liver function
– Involved in production of bone cells
– Involved in regulation of the menstruation cycle

Semi-essential nutrients

Bioflavonoids, Hesperidine, Rutinine (vitamin P-do not fit the description of true vitamins) – Enhance the uptake of vitamine C
– Protect vitamin C
– Strengthen capillaries
– Promote wound healing
– Antioxidants

Choline
– Essential component of lecithin which helps break down fat in liver
– Facilitates movement of fats into cells
– Facilitates synthesis of cell membranes in nervous system
– Protects the lungs
– Important for the health of liver and kidneys
– Used in all slimming products

PABA (not an official vitamin)
– Often regarded as a member of the B vitamin complex
– Protects the skin against damage from UV-radiation
– Promotes healthy skin, hair and nails
– Involved in functioning of immune system

Vitamins can be found in several natural sources like fruit and vegetables. One could say by having a varied diet with natural sources there would be an adequate intake of vitamins. The sad truth is that our food is not what is used to be. Fruit and vegetables are only as good as the soil in which they grown. The trouble is that modern farming, which relies heavily on artificial fertilisers and pesticides, robs the soil of nutrients without replacing them. Through over -farming, the soil becomes nutrient-deficient anyway. Cooking also destroys part of the nutrients in the food you eat. Every process that food goes through, whether storing, freezing, baking, frying, cooking, takes it toll.

Recommended Daily allowances (RDA’s) were instituted over forty years ago, unfortunately the amounts recommended only give us the bare minimum requirements to prevent deficiency diseases like beriberi, scurvy, rickets, and night blindness. In no way they address the amount needed to maintain maximum health. Several scientific studies have shown that a larger amount of vitamins helps our bodies to operate better.

Minerals are an-organic nutrients necessary for many biochemical and physiological processes in the body. Minerals function as coenzymes, enabling energy production, growth, and healing. All enzyme activities involve minerals and therefore are essential for proper utilisation of vitamins and other cofactors that maintain proper chemical balance.
Minerals are grouped into two categories:
Macro minerals are needed daily in amounts ranging from 100 mg
– calcium
– magnesium
– sodium
– potassium
– phosphorus

Micro Minerals (Trace elements)
– boron
– chromium
– copper
– germanium
– iodine
– manganese
– molybdenum
– selenium
– silicon
– sulfur
– vanadium
– zinc

Minerals are in the first place extracted from the soil by plants. Like vitamins, they may be obtained directly from eating these plants or from eating the meat of the animals that ate the plants. Again like vitamins they are frequently deficient in our modern diets. The primary reasons are: declining mineral levels in natural foods, essential minerals are refined out of food and our mineral needs are increasing.

MINERALS

Calcium
– Improves heart function
– Involved in nerve conduction
– Essential for production of bones and teeth
– Clots blood
– Improves muscle contractions
– Relieves aching muscles and bones
– Maintains correct acid-alkaline balance
– Reduces menstrual cramps and tremors.

Chromium
– Helps to balance blood sugar
– Helps to normalize appetite and reduce cravings
– Helps to protect DNA and RNA
– Essential for heart function
– Has an important role in the production of fatty acids and HDL cholesterol

Iodine
– Essential component of the thyroid hormones that guard our energy levels
– Natural anti inflammatory agent
– Optimizes the uptake of carbohydrates
– Stimulates the formation of HDL cholesterol

Iron
– Component of hemoglobin
– Essential for oxygen and carbon dioxide transportation to and from cells
– Component of enzymes
– Vital for energy production
– Component of antioxidant system

Potassium
– Enables nutrients to move into and waste products to move out of cells
– Activates enzymes that control energy production
– Prevents and treats high blood pressure
– Important for nerve conduction and heartbeat
– Important for energy production
– Important for protein production
– Relaxes muscles

Magnesium
– Strengthens bones and teeth
– Relaxes muscles
– Important for heart muscles and nervous system
– Essential for energy production
– Involved as a cofactor in many enzymes in the body

Manganese
– Helps to form healthy bones, cartilage, tissues and nerves
– Activates more than twenty enzymes including an antioxidant enzyme system
– Stabilizes blood sugar
– Promotes healthy DNA and RNA
– Essential for reproduction and red blood cell synthesis
– Important for insulin production
– Reduces cell damage
– Required for brain function.

Selenium
– Helps to protect against free radicals and Carcinogens
– Reduces inflammation
– Stimulates immune system to fight infections
– Promotes a healthy heart and helps vitamin E’s action
– Required for male reproductive system
– Needed for metabolism.

Zinc
– Component of over two hundred enzymes in the body
– Component of DNA and RNA
– Essential for growth
– Important for healing
– Controls hormones which are messengers from organs such as testes and ovaries
– Aids ability to cope with stress effectively
– Promotes healthy nervous system and brain especially in the growing fetus
– Promotes healthy skin
– Aids bones and teeth formation
– Essential for constant energy

Certain vitamins and minerals are regarded as anti-oxidants, they slow down the aging process and protect the body form cancer, heart disease and pollution. Anti-oxidants such as the vitamins A, C, E, plus beta-carotene, the precursor of vitamin A and the minerals selenium and zinc protect the body’s cells from oxidation by free radicals. Free radicals come from many sources they are primarily derived from oxygen but also from stress, food additives, alcohol, drugs, smoking, junk foods, industrial pollution and big city smoke.

Oxygen is the basis of all plant and animal life. It is our most important nutrient, needed by every cell every moment of the day. As oxygen is processed a small percentage of unstable oxygen radicals is formed. In the process of achieving balance, by looking for the missing electron, the free radicals tear apart cell membranes and genetic material causing irreversible damage. You can see with your own eyes how free radicals work, by cutting an apple in half and than leave it on a plate. Within a short period the apple turns brown. These are the free radicals at work, oxidising the apple. Foods and nutritional supplements containing anti oxidants help deactivating the free radicals in providing them with the electrons necessary for their stability.

Nowadays the use of a high-dose sustained release multi vitamin/mineral product is widely accepted in sports as well as in daily life. A vitamin & mineral complex must have the right combination of ingredients and be well balanced. Not every binding results in an optimal absorption in the physiological system.

Betaine is a proteolytic (protein digesting) enzyme which initiates protein transformation into amino acids which are the building blocks of the body. Glutamic acid is a non-essential amino acid that is an important part of the central nervous system. It plays a role in the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. Glutamic acid is able to be converted to glutamine by picking up nitrogen atoms. This way the brain is detoxified of ammonia (the only way the brain is detoxified).
Some of the minerals in our product are chelated. This means that a mineral has been coupled with an amino acid to promote the uptake in the body.

Korean Ginseng: alleviates symptoms of depression, enhances energy levels, has a reputation as a potent aphrodisiac.

Parsley: basic ground of enzymes, natural diuretic.

Natural Fibre: Assists with optimum metabolism and utilisation of all ingredients. Also increases the transport time of waste products through the system.

DNA and RNA:
The development and reproduction of cells in the body is determined by something called genes, also known as DNA which are responsible for making another genetic component called RNA. Some of the above mentioned minerals help to prevent the destruction of these genetic materials, and in so doing may prevent serious diseases. DNA and RNA are added to the formula with the synergistic minerals to help maintain cell health
Boron(B): needed for healthy bones, enhances brain function, promotes alertness, contributes to health of cell membranes and aids in some enzyme reactions, helps against postmenopausal osteoporosis and builds muscle
Calcium(Ca): promotes a healthy heart, nerves, skin, bone, teeth, clots blood, contracts muscles, relieves aching muscles and bones, maintains correct acid-alkaline balance, reduces menstrual cramps and tremors.

Chromium(Cr): helps to balance blood sugar, helps to normalise hunger and reduce cravings, improves lifespan, helps protect DNA and RNA, essential for heart function.

Copper(Cu): necessary for and assists in the production of haemoglobin and red blood cells, increasing iron absorption, important for the production of collagen, antioxidant, enhances immune system, prevents heart and vascular diseases.

Iodine(I): essential component of the thyroid hormones that guard our energy levels, prevents struma, natural anti inflammatory agent.

Iron(Fe): is as a component of haemoglobin essential for oxygen and carbon dioxide transportation to and from cells. Component of enzymes, vital for energy production

Magnesium(Mg): strengthens bones and teeth, relaxes muscles, important for heart muscles and nervous system, essential for energy production, involved as a cofactor in many enzymes in the body.

Manganese(Mn): helps to from healthy bones, cartilage, tissues and nerves, activates more than twenty enzymes including an antioxidant enzyme system, stabilises blood sugar, promotes healthy DNA and RNA, essential for reproduction and red blood cell synthesis, important for insulin production, reduces cell damage, required for brain function.

Molybdenum(Mo): essential part of the enzyme responsible for the usage of iron in our body, essential for optimal health, can prevent schizophrenia and impotence.

Potassium(K): enables nutrients to move into and waste products to move out of cells, activates enzymes that control energy production, prevents and treats high blood pressure, important for nerve conduction, heartbeat, energy production, protein production and muscle relaxation

Selenium(Se): helps to protect against free radicals and carcinogens, reduces inflammation, stimulates immune system to fight infections, promotes a healthy heart and helps vitamin E’s action, required for male reproductive system, needed for metabolism.

Zinc(Zn): component of over two hundred enzymes in the body, component of DNA and RNA, essential for growth, important for healing, controls hormones which are messengers from organs such as testes and ovaries, aids ability to cope with stress effectively, promotes healthy nervous system and brain especially in the growing foetus, promotes healthy skin, aids bones and teeth formation, helps hair, essential for constant energy
Also added to the formula are the following components:

The following table can be used as a reference table showing the various systems in the body which utilize minerals. Research is showing that imbalances or deficiencies in mineral nutrition can affect these systems.
Immune System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . …Cu, Zn, Fe, Se
Energy Production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mg, P, Mn, Cr
Hormone System . . . . . . .. . . . Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Mg, K,Cr
Vitamin Production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Co
Blood Production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cu, Fe
Enzyme Systems . . . . Zn, Cu, K, Mn, Mg, Fe, Ca, Mo,Cr
Skeletal System . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn, Bo, P
Reproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P, Cu, K, Mn, Zn, Mg

PHYSICAL ASPECT OF WEIGHT AND POWER TRAINING

POSTURE

Its very important to maintain a good posture while performing weight training with free weights. The basic guidelines has to be used in all following positions.

standing position
– ankles, knees, hips and shoulders even in frontal and side view.
– feet at shoulder width (solid base)
– knees slightly bend.
– lower back in a slight inward curve (lordose)
– upper back in a slight outward curve (kyphose)
– chest slightly up
– shoulders slightly retracted
– isometric contraction of the abdominal, lower back and buttock muscles

POSTURE

Its very important to maintain a good posture while performing weight training with free weights. The basic guidelines has to be used in all following positions.

standing position
– ankles, knees, hips and shoulders even in frontal and side view.
– feet at shoulder width (solid base)
– knees slightly bend.
– lower back in a slight inward curve (lordose)
– upper back in a slight outward curve (kyphose)
– chest slightly up
– shoulders slightly retracted
– isometric contraction of the abdominal, lower back and buttock muscles

sitting position
– make sure you use a solid base (bench or specialised equipment)
– feet firmly flat on the floor.
– keep the lower back in a slight inward curve (lordose)
– chest slightly up
– shoulder slightly contracted backwards
– isometric contraction of the abdominal, lower back and buttock muscles.

supine
– feet firmly flat on the floor
– knees in a 90o angle
– buttocks stay on the bench
– the lower back in a slight inward curve
– the chest up
– shoulder blades are slightly retracted
– head stays on the bench during the exercise
– isometric contraction of the abdominal, lower back and buttock muscles

SPEED

Its important to have full control over the weights during the whole exercise. Therefore to control the speed of the movement at any time is important. A general rule for fitness purposes, use a 2 count concentric phase (moving the weight against the force of gravity), a 1 count isometric phase (holding the weight with the muscles contracted against the force of gravity), a 4 count eccentric phase (controlling the weight that moves with the force of gravity) and a 1 count pause between repetitions.

Note: The type of exercises and their speed can be adjusted when needed for sport specific exercises.

VARIATION

There are many variations possible with each of the exercises described. We provide you with the standard description for each exercise and with some of the exercises variations that are often used are described.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BARBELL AND DUMBELL EXERCISES

Most exercises can be done both with barbell or dumbbells.

There are several advantages of using dumbbells instead of the barbell. By lifting a weight on one side of the body the stabilising muscles on the other side of the body are activated. Also strength differences between left and right are more easily noticed and balanced. With dumbbells it is also easier to change the rotational position of the arm during the exercise, this can be important to avoid or treat injuries.

With certain type of exercises the range of motion is greater when using dumbbells, for example the dumbbell press. Dumbbells are more adapted to train the muscles at their different functions in one motion. The biceps for example does not only bend the arm but simultaneously supinate (externally rotate) the lower arm.

Training with a barbell usually makes it possible to handle larger amounts of weight because the barbell can be rested on certain bodyparts, for example with the barbell squat and lunge. Another reason you can use more weight with a barbell is that there is no instability in the frontal plane of the body.

Training ethics. Training with weights in essence is very simple. But in this case simple does not mean easy! Using the exercises of this CD ROM will let the man grow bigger and more impressive. A lady surely will receive positive remarks on her improved physic. When training with weights the steady increase of weight is one of the goals. Select a number of basic exercises and follow them over a period of time. If you do not grow stronger and/or bigger while seriously engaging weight training, something in the combination of your training, sleep and diet is not right. There is nothing such as a fixed system that always works for everybody. Many different factors are involved and play a role. Everywhere in this CD ROM you will be reminded of this fact. Basic exercise is always important for measurement and grow count, stick to them and you know were you stand. Building muscle, toning muscle and training with weights successfully is a matter of change, continuation, back to basics and improving again. Like a spiral, the more you work out, the wider your perspective will become, but always look back to where it started as it is the foundation of your current physic.
It is important for you to be able to distinguish the difference between compound and isolation exercises. These 2 basic types are used when training with weights. The distinguishing features of these two types of exercises provide unique ways to work on our bodies. A balanced combination of both types will optimize the effects of your training.

A compound exercise involves the use of more than one joint and many different muscle-groups to complete a movement. An isolation exercise is intended to focus on the use of one joint and one muscle-group. The best example of a compound exercise is squatting. A squat combines the use of back, hips and knees (in lesser extend also ankles) as joints, but involves all muscle groups from back, stomach and legs all combined in one movement. An exercise like leg extensions however, places the emphasis on the use of one specific part of the upper leg. Although both these exercises train the thighs, they nevertheless have a different effect. To perform the compound exercise, almost all the muscles of the upper legs are used, i.e. mainly the frontal part of the thighs (quadriceps), but also important muscles of the rear part (hamstrings and the buttocks). To perform an isolation exercise, one single muscle is targeted. An isolation exercise, mainly concentrates on a specific (isolated) part of the thighs. Understanding the relationship between combinations of these types of exercising is essential for successfully developing your body

Compound exercises are the backbone of every balanced fitness routine. They contribute to the development of muscles in a way not achieved by the use of isolation exercises. Compound exercises are important during the first stages of your development when you are trying to achieve total body development. In the Exercise Reference Chart in the WorkoutManager™ software after clicking the icon ‘Reference Sheets’ at the left, you will find a list of carefully selected compound and isolation exercises., there is no doubt that many more may be found in your local library or bookshop. Category. Compound. Isolation. Chest: presses, flies, crossovers. Shoulders: presses, rows, raises. Back: pull-downs, row pull-downs, pullovers. Quadriceps: squats, extensions. Hamstrings: lunges, curls. The biceps and triceps are not included in this list. That is because with these two muscle-groups only one joint is used to perform movements

Various methods of exercising (1/3). Exercises can be divided up into 4 categories: 1) Dumbbells and barbells 2) Fitness machines & cables 3) Cardio equipment 4) Body weight. You understand that for proper development of your body it is necessary that all of the above methods of exercising are included in your training. All exercises have a limited motion range. By putting together a balanced combination of dumbbell/barbell exercises with exercises using fitness machines, cables, cardio and/or body weight exercises, it is possible to make complete training schedule.

Dumbbells and barbells. Dumbbells and barbells are often referred to as ‘free weights’. Dumbbell/barbell exercises are particularly suitable for the development of muscle co-ordination and muscle balance. They provide a unique freedom of movement while performing these exercises. Because the weights are kept in balance during the movement the so-called stabilizer muscles are also involved and perform work by balancing the motion. These muscles stabilize the body while doing basic exercises such as bench pressing and squatting. Stabilisers are smaller and not visible at skin level. However, stabilizer muscles to a large extent determine your body’s strength and symmetry. Dumbbells force parts of your body to work independently of each other causing each individual muscle to experience approximately the same weight. With barbells, the stronger muscles of a muscle-group often carry the greater part of the weight, allowing the other – weaker muscles – to work less hard. That is why it is important to combine barbell with dumbbell exercises

In modern fitness centres a variety of fitness machines is found, each one targeting a specific muscle or muscle-group. Fitness machines ensure that a specific movement is carried out along a pre-determined path. This reduces the risk of performing the movement incorrectly. This way you can concentrate on the weight instead of on the way the exercise is performed. In theory this will make you grow stronger whilst increasing the number of ways in which the body may be developed. In practice, however, it has been proven that fitness machines do not adapt themselves to divergent body types. Another disadvantage is that many stabilizer muscles are not stimulated by such fixed exercises. Fitness machines should therefore only be used to supplement your training, not as basis of a balanced body training program.

Cables. Cable exercises combine some of the advantages of free weights with those of fitness machines. Cable exercises ensure that the muscles involved are evenly tensed during the entire movement. This in contrast to free weight exercises and exercises using fitness machines, during the performance of which the muscle tension varies. Because of this unique way of stimulation cable exercises also deserve a place in your training program. However, here too it is important to emphasize that the selected exercises should only be used to supplement your total body training program.

Exercises which only make use of your own body weight are good for outside the gym. Many men and women who train at home do these exercises. They are easy to perform and can be done anywhere. A lot of these exercises train your muscles as effectively as many weights exercises. A barbell or dumbbell exercise to train your biceps may serve as an illustration. If you do pull ups on a bar using only your biceps, you will notice that this is much heavier than the barbell or dumbbell exercise. Body weight exercises therefore are an excellent way to supplement your training. By combining these divergent methods of exercising you will have a complete arsenal of exercises and variations at your disposal. Be receptive to variation and diversity! Variation and diversity will ensure continuous development of your body and will prevent boredom.

Many fitness enthusiasts develop tremendously during the first year, but subsequently hardly achieve any noticeable results. To force the body to keep on adjusting (and therefore growing) the progressive resistance principle is applied. We discuss two applications suitable for your workouts. Proportional incremental development: the weight is continuously and proportionally increased. An example of this application is when you add 1.25 kilograms of weight to your bench-pressing exercises every week. Step-by-step development: weight is increased by leaps. Every leap is followed by a certain period without weight increase, after which another weight increase takes place and so on. This method is used by all experienced athletes.

There are a number of methods which – provided they form a part of your training – ensure progress in your workouts. * Increase the weight you are lifting. Do a standard number of repetitions and sets every week. Add, for instance, 1 to 2.5 kilograms of weight to your last two sets. * Increase the number of repetitions for each set. Use the same weight for each workout, but try to increase the number of repetitions from week to week. * Increase the number of sets in each workout. * Shorten the rest period between the sets of an exercise. Use the same weight, same number of repetitions and same pace during each workout, but shorten the rest taken between sets by for instance 10 seconds. This increases the intensity. * Lengthen the time the muscle remains under tension. Use the same weight and the same number of repetitions, but try to slow down the downward motion. Start with a pace of 3-0-1 (3 seconds to lower the weight, no rest, 1 second to lift the weight). During the next workout slow the pace down to 5-0-1. The following week slow down to 7-0-1 and so on. In practice you often use 2 or more of these methods at the same time. A slower development over a longer period lead to better and longer lasting results. Try to develop your body as slowly and consistently as possible in close harmony with your natural abilities to train, recover and grow.

How much weight? How much weight should I use? There is a short answer to this frequently asked question: Every human body differs genetically in muscle strength levels. Even muscles differ in strength compared to another of the same type found symmetrical on the body. Therefore you should find out by trial-and-error where the limits of your muscle strength lie. Especially during the first few weeks of training you have to try and determine the limits of your individual muscles. It is important to carefully write down for each muscle where its limits are when doing specific exercises.

An example how to determine these limits. Take bench-pressing, for example. First lift only the empty bar. An empty bar weights 8 – 20 kg and without any added weights most people can easily do the exercise. Add 5 kg, one to each side. This will already be heavier to perform nevertheless, with some difficulty you manage to do approximately 10 repetitions. Add 2 ½ kg more to each side. With difficulty you can manage 6 to 8 repetitions. This weight should then be noted in your workout schedule as your maximum bench-pressing weight. Next time the third set of this exercise must start with that weight.

After that, try each time to increase weight by adding some weight. By taking small steps at a time your muscles will become much stronger over a longer timespan. It is therefore better to take many small steps than a few bigger ones. This approach prevents injuries and, more importantly, disappointments. The joy of weekly successes will keep you motivated for a long time

Large muscles come first. Exercise the large muscles-groups first before starting on smaller ones. This means that the large muscle-groups of the chest, legs and back should be exercised before moving on to arms and shoulder training. Exercising of the larger muscle-groups both mentally and physically taxes your system heavily. With these larger muscle-groups many other muscles are involved to help finish the exercise. Take bench-pressing exercises, for example, for training the chest. To do these exercises you not only use your chest muscles. Your back and triceps also have to work hard to lift the weight. Before doing the bench-press you could exercise some smaller muscles like the triceps and biceps. But if you do so it is likely the triceps will become tired and will not be able to deliver sufficient power to do optimum bench pressing. This way your chest is not fully trained. Not enough training implies less growth. Therefore, when starting up your workout, do the exercises involving multiple muscle-groups (compound exercises) first

Breathing. Correct breathing is essential to proper training. Inhale deeply before starting on any exercise. Exhale in a controlled manner during the more strenuous part of the exercise. During the easier part of the exercise, you inhale again. In other words, you exhale when making the greatest effort whilst inhale on the way back to the point where you started. Try to do the exercises strictly as prescribed whilst inhaling and exhaling evenly. In this way you teach yourself to breathe correctly during exercise. This ensures oxygen is transported evenly from the lungs to the muscles. Strict exercising. Start off with a pace of 3-0-1 (3 seconds to lower the weight, no rest, 1 second to lift the weight). This way of exercising has several advantages: * The extra (3 seconds) stretch in the long run increases the elasticity of the muscle concerned.
* It forces you to consciously carry out the exercise in a controlled manner which reinforces the mind-to-muscle link.
* It avoids forced and uncontrolled movements (1-0-1), which may cause accidents or injuries.

The importance of rest is often underestimated. Muscles do not grow inside the gym; they grow outside! Both under-exercising (insufficient muscle stimulation) and over-exercising (excessive muscle stimulation) are counter productive. Continuous or even incidental over-exercising of the muscles will not strengthen them. Proper balance between rest and exercise must be observed.

Beginners grow fast during the first year. Many start exercising even more intensively and their bodies seem to adjust wonderfully. Unfortunately this will end. After a while growth slows down and a stage is entered where you have to exercise hard for just a little growth. However, once you have reached this point you are able to lift more weight in less time i.e. your workout intensity has increased. Particularly if you feel muscular pain following a very intensive workout, rest is important to afford your body a chance to recover. A diet based on extra high-grade proteins is excellent during this recovery period. Once the muscle has completely recovered after a couple of days, you may start exercising again. If you exercise 3 days a week as is suggested on this CD-ROM – for instance on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays -, you should use the remaining 4 days to recover and grow.

Three days a week to the gym usually is more than enough! Once every 4 to 6 weeks spend a few extra days without exercising. Between sets of exercises it is best not to rest more than 30 to 90 seconds. This way the intensity of the total workout remains high, which stimulates the burning of fat, improves your stamina and overall condition of your body. If you are a beginner, you will notice that your average workout takes a long time. That is because you spend more time on other things than on actually exercising. However, after a while your body will adjust to the intensity of your workouts. You will then begin to notice that the exercises use up less time and that you can do more work in less time. However, if you do not feel very well, by all means take more rest in between sets of exercises.

Variation. Adjusting your training-habits. There are no fixed rules for when to change your workouts. Much depends on how you react on your current training-program, your genetics and your training-history. Changing your training-program will stimulate the muscles differently, forcing them to adjust. Aside from a protein-rich diet, variation is the most important factor to ensure a positive long-term development. Once you have reached the intermediate level, you will notice that you exercise more often, require more food (proteins) and need more rest, whereas at the same time you will start to use various supplements. In this context it is important to start implementing in your daily workouts any extra information you may have obtained from books and magazines about exercising and nutrition. Variety will motivate you and prevents boredom.